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Journey of Sanskrit in the West

In Chronicle Order of Western Scholar

Sir William Jones (1746-94 A.D.)

British scholar and founder of Royal Asiatic Society, famous institution involved in Indological studies, admired the theme, form, power and beauty of Sanskrit Language and stressed its affinity to Greek and Latin. He translated the Shakuntala in English, the Manusmriti in English and German, and edited the Ritusamhara, which was his first printed work in Sanskrit.

Charles Wilkins (1750-1836)

A British scholar translated Hitopadesha and the Bhagavadgita in English. His translation of the Bhagavadgita (London 1785), was first Sanskrit book to be directly translated into a European language. For his book ‘Sanskrit Grammar’ (1808), Sanskrit type was used for the first time in Europe, a type that the author himself had made. The Shakuntala episode of the Mahabharata (1793) was also his work.

H.T. Colebrooke, a French Scholar (1765-1837)

He edited and/or translated. The Shakuntala (1830) the Amarushataka (1831). The Hitopadesa (1804), the Amarakosa (1808), the Shatakatraya of Bhartrihari (1804), Samkhyakarika of Ishvarakrishna (1837) and two treatises on Hindu law of inheritance (1810). His work on algebra with arithmetic and mensuration based on Sanskrit works of Brahmagupta and Bhaskara preceded by a dissertation on the state of science as known to Hindus was published in 1917 in London. His Digest of the Hindu Law on Contracts and Recessions (1997-98) was a translation of composition, prepared by native scholars, on the law of succession and contract, from the Indian law books. He also wrote the ‘Grammar of the Sanskrit Language‘ (1805).

A.W.V. Schlegel (1767-1845),

He was German scholar who founded a periodical ‘Indische Bibliothek’ (First Vol. appeared in 1823). He contributed the Ramayana, the Hitopadesha and also the first critical edition of the Bhagavadgita with Latin translations (1823).

Fredric Rozane of 19th Century AD.

He was a German Scholar, who edited and translated some parts of the Rigveda into German in 1830.

S.A. Longlois of 19th Century AD.

He was from France and he translated the whole text of the Rigveda into French, which was published in Paris, during 1848-51.

Hermann Grassman (1809-77),

He was a German Scholar, who made a poetic translation of the Rigveda and a Lexicon of the Rigveda in German titled, Worterbruchzum Rgveda.

Monier Williams (1819-89)

A British scholar wrote An Elementary Grammar of the Sanskrit language (1846), A Practical Grammar of the Sanskrit Language, A Sanskrit Manual for Composition (1862) and composed English- Sanskrit (1851) and Sanskrit-English (1872) Dictionaries. He edited and translated the Shakuntala (1856), the Vikramorvashiyam, the Nalopakhyanam (1879) and wrote many other books like the Hinduism (1877) and the Indian Wisdom (1878).

William Dawight Whitney (1827-94),

He was an American scholar, edited the Atharvaveda (1856) and wrote the Sanskrit Grammar (1879) and The Roots, Verb-forms and Primary Derivations of Sanskrit language (1885). He edited the Atharvaveda Pratishakhya (1862) and the Taittiriya Pratishakhya, with commentary and translation. He also edited and translated the Surya Siddhanta, a treatise on Astronomy and Astrology and produced the Oriental and Linguistic Studies in two volumes (1873-74).

Max Muller (1823-1900)

He was German scholar associated with The Sacred Books of the East Series. He translated Upanisads and Apastamba-Sutras in English, and edited the Rigveda with Commentary of Sayana (6 Vols.) He also edited the Hitopadesa, the Meghaduta (1847), the Rigveda Pratishakhya (1859-69) with German translations. He wrote many books on Philosophy, Grammar, and History related to Sanskrit.

A.Weber 1805-1901,

He was very famous among those who contributed to Vedic literature. He was a French Missionary. He translated the Shukla Yajurveda Samhita’s Ninth and Tenth Chapters into Latin and its 16th chapter into German. He also translated the Atharvaveda into German, published under the title Indische Studien.

R.T.H. Griffith 1828-1906,

He was the first and the last after H. H. Wilson, who translated the whole text of the Rigveda into English. He has also published his poetic translation of the Yajurveda, the Samaveda, and the Atharvaveda.

Alfred Ludwig (1832-1911),

He is from Germany, was a Professor of Sanskrit in the University of Prague. He prepared the German translation of the Rigveda, titled Der Rigveda with 230 important Suktas of the Atharvaveda translated into Germany.

Harace Hymen Wilson of 19th Century AD.

He is from England and lived in India for a long time. He edited and translated the text of the Rigveda with the Sayana Bhashya into English.

A.B. Keith of 20th Century AD.

He was the student of McDonnell, who translated the Taittiriya Samhita into English, that was published under the Harward  Oriental Series in 1914 in America.

Theodar Benfey (1909-81)

He translated 130 Suktas of Ist Mandala of the Rigveda into German. He also translated the whole text of the Kauthuma Shakha in German that was published with illustrations and lexicons in the year 1848.

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