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PMBOK Processes

Develop Schedule

Develop Schedule

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Develop schedule is the last planning process of time management knowledge area. So it is the final stage of schedule development. The only purpose of this process is to make a project schedule which is doable and acceptable to all the relevant stakeholders. Thus schedule baseline is output of this process.
But you will notice that by this time in earlier 5 processes of time management namely Plan Schedule Management, Define Activities, Sequence Activities, Estimate Activity Resources, Estimate Activity Duration we have not done anything to optimize the overall project schedule. In today’s business environment time is the most critical and scarce resource so we should perform certain activities using some scheduling tools to analyze the robustness of the schedule, to optimize the resource, to optimize the cost and to optimize the time.
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Develop Schedule: Process Table

Direct and Manage Project Work

Direct and Manage Project Work

The process of leading and performing the Work defined in the project management plan and implementing approved change requests to achieve the project’s objectives.

Following activities need to be performed under this process.

  • Perform activities planned to accomplish project’s objective
  • Create project deliverables
  • Staff, train and manage the team members
  • Acquire resources (people, tool, equipments, material) and manage their usage
  • Implement planned methods and standards
  • Establish and manage communication channels
  • Record project data related to project’s scope, cost, quality, schedule etc
  • Initiate change requests
  • Implement approved change requests
  • Manage risks and implement risk responses
  • Manage sellers and suppliers
  • Collect and document lessons learned, implement approved process improvements

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Direct and Manage Project Work : Process Table

PMBOK Process Summary Table

Estimate Activity Durations

Estimate Activity Durations

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Estimating the time required (in hours, days or weeks). It is suggested that you estimate duration in productive hours. If you are estimating in days or weeks then you should not include non-productive hours, weekly offs, availability of more people to complete the work earlier. For example, to fix a door in the building with the estimated resources (man, material, equipments) you estimated duration as 4 hours. Now for example if 4 people are required to complete the work then human efforts is 16 hours. It is not 2 days! Nor 1 hours with 16 people! Nor 6 days because work starts on 1-Jan-16 and first day only 2 hours’ work happens then 4 days off because of any reason (person will not be available, company off, lead time to complete the work etc) and remaining 2 hours’ work will be done on 6-Jan-16. So this estimation is neither effort, nor schedule, nor time/resource optimization. This is just about how much duration is required to complete the work with the estimated resources.
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Estimate Activity Durations: Process Table

Estimate Activity Resources

Estimate Activity Resources

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Estimating the type and number of resources required to perform the identified activities. You may be thinking why sequence activities process is earlier to this process. From our experience we know that activity’s sequence impact type and number of resources required. If two activities A & B, which are of similar type and can be completed by one resource, has must be done in parallel then you need two resources otherwise taking only one resources on the project could have helped us completing the work on time. This is the impact of determining sequence on resource estimation.
When you are estimating resources then do not look into your resource pool that how many people you have. But look into the nature of activity and determine how much minimum you need. You should not focus on time or resource optimization. Do not look into how many resources are required to complete the work in 2 days. Just estimate for this kind of activity what type of resources and how many are required to complete the activity.
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Estimate Activity Resources: Process Table

Estimate Cost

Estimate Cost

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This is the second process of the cost management knowledge area. The process of developing an approximation of the monetary resources needed to complete the project activities. Following activities should be done as a part of this process.

  • Cost of every activity is estimated by adding the cost of all the resources of an activity.
  • Based on the organization policy calculate the cost of overhead, indirect cost, labor cost, material cost, services cost etc.
  • Document the assumptions, which are basis of the estimation.
  • Estimate the contingency reserve for the project, each milestone, phase.

We know from our experience that the money which we pay for using resources on our project are paid at different time sometimes in advance of using resources, other times after using resources and other times it may be prorate basis. This is another important think we should keep in mind when we are estimating the resources cost. Although this is part of next process, Determine Budget, but until we put the resource cost at right place on the project timeline it will be wrong approximation when we sum-up the cost for budgeting purpose.

Sometimes project managers need to estimate the cost of capital. So if required estimate also this cost for your project.
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Estimate Cost: Process Table

Identify Risks

Identify Risks

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Identify Risks: Process Table

Manage Communications

Manage Communications

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Manage Communications: Process Table

Manage Project Team

Manage Project Team

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Manage Project Team: Process Table

Manage Stakeholder Engagement

Manage Stakeholder Engagement

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Manage Stakeholder Engagement: Process Table

Monitor and Control Project Work

Monitor and Control Project Work

PMBOK Monitor & Control Project Work

PMBOK Monitor & Control Project Work

How the management or customer or you will come to know that whether the project is going as per the approved plan? The only way is monitor the progress against the plan. Where is the plan for monitoring? In the project management plan! Project management plan includes the plan of project execution, project monitoring and controlling and project closure. So you need to prepare the performance report of the project work, perform analysis of the data collected and make decision if there is variance from the base plan. The decision is change request. Change request can lead to defect repair or preventive action or corrective action.

In nutshell the Monitor and Control Project Work process is for tracking, reviewing, and reporting the progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan. Monitoring and controlling of all project activities performed throughout project life-cycle.

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Monitor and Control Project Work : Process Table

PMBOK Process Summary Table

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Perform Integrated Change Control

PMBOK Perform Integrated Change Control

PMBOK Perform Integrated Change Control

Perform Integrated Change Control

Project exists to address the change. The project management is influenced heavily by the change management. It is almost impossible to complete a project successfully without taking a change request. But if you do not control the changes in a systematic way, then you will never to able to complete the project successfully. So at the heart of project management lies an art and science of managing and negotiating changes. PMBOK centralizes all the change requests through this process. Make as simple or as complicated your change request process as is the need of project but there is only one channel through which any change can be handled and that is this process called “Perform Integrated Change Control’.  Define your change management processes clearly, communicate and educate all the stakeholders and specially to the project team that how we handle changes to the approved work.

In the industries generally change request is consider increase of scope. But PMBOK gives very broad meaning to this term. If you cannot deliver a project successfully by following your approved project plan then whatever deviation you take is part of change. Change request need to be looked from two perspective a- what is changing b-what is impacting. What is changing can be process, training need, scope, availability of people, funds or time etc. What is impacting can be quality, functionality, performance, need of more funds or time. Therefore before you can a decision to work on a change or not you must know what is changing and what is the impact of the change.

Every change request may not lead to change in baseline or change of some document. Change may be as settle as we want to change our work culture so define a set of values and follow those from tomorrow morning. Change may be as gross as some work need to be re-done tomorrow because customer changed his mind. Great project managers always works with threshold limits so to approve every change they need not to go to management. Many times they themselves make the decision to implement the change and absorb the impact from the change budget. The beauty of great project management work is to address all the changes within the approved change budget.

The process of reviewing all change requests, approving changes and managing changes to the deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents , project management plan and communicating their disposition is perform integrated change control.

This process deals with influencing the factors that circumvent change request and ensure only approved changes are implemented. The responsibility of this process also includes documenting approved changes, maintaining integrity of baselines, coordinating changes across the entire project and documenting the complete impact of change request.
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Perform Integrated Change Control : Process Table

PMBOK Process Summary Table

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Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis

Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis

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Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis: Process Table

Perform Quality Assurance

Perform Quality Assurance

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Perform Quality Assurance

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Quality Assurance: Process Table

This table is based on PMBOK 5th Edition of PMI

Input Tools & Techniques Output
Quality Management Plan Quality Management & Control Tools Change Requests
Process Improvement Plan Quality audits Organization Process Assets Updates
Quality Metrics Process analysis Project Management Plan Updates
Quality Control Measurements Project Documents Updates
Project Documents
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Risk Management Plan Expert Judgement Project Documents Updates
Cost Management Plan Data gathering and representation techniques
Schedule Management Plan Quantitative Risk analysis and modelling techniques
Risk Register
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Organization Process Assets

Plan Communications Management

Plan Communications Management

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Plan Communications Management: Process Table

Plan Cost Management

Plan Cost Management

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Plan cost management is the first process of cost management knowledge area. This processes documents the answer of following questions.

  • How the estimation of the planned activities will be performed?
  • How budget will be prepared?
  • What are the different types of cost should be part of cost baseline?
  • What will be the cost tolerance?
  • How to determine the budget to manage risks.
  • The scope of cost estimation, should we estimate the cost of entire project or of a part of the project?
  • What are tools, techniques, templates, reference estimation source required to estimation.
  • What are the metrics to report the cost performance of the project
  • How to monitor & control the cost (process, system, tools, people, trainings etc)
  • Accounting code allocated by finance department for billing to customer or to make payments to vendor partners

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Plan Cost Management: Process Table

Plan Human Resource Management

Plan Human Resource Management

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Plan Human Resource Management: Process Table

Plan Procurement Management

Plan Procurement Management

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Plan Procurement Management: Process Table

Plan Quality Management

Plan Quality Management

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Plan Quality Management: Process Table